Classification of Piles – Pile Foundation
Any building structure (residence building, industrial building, bridge construction, etc) every structure stand on a foundation, and in civil engineering number of type of foundation is large. Today in this civil experience article we are going to explain about Pile Foundation in detail which you do not want to miss so read carefully and share with friends, Don’t miss joining us.
Classification of Piles Based on Function
Based on the function, piles are classified into the following types
- End bearing pile
- Friction pile
- Compaction pile
- Tension pile
- Anchor pile
- Fender pile
- Better pile
- Sheet pile
We explain fully in detail each type in this civil experience best civil engineering blog article, so read carefully and don’t forget to share
End Bearing Pile
End Bearing types of piles penetrate through the soft soil layer, and their bottoms, also known as tips, rest on a hard soil stratum. These piles act as columns.
The soft material surrounding the pile provides some lateral support.
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For end bearing pile’s equation is as follow
Qu = Qp
When the availability of loose soil extends to a greater depth. Piles are driven up to such a depth that frictional resistance developed at the sides of the piles equals the load coming on the piles.
Friction piles are used when a hard stratum is available at a greater depth.
The equation for friction pile is
Qu = Qs
Where Qu = Ultimate load
Qs = Skin friction
The total frictional resistance can be increased in the following ways:
- By increasing the length of the pile
- By increasing the diameter of the pile
- By making the surface of the pile rough
- By placing the piles closely
- By grouping the piles
When piles are driven in loose granular soil with the aim of increasing the bearing capacity of the soil, the piles are termed compaction piles.
These piles themselves do not carry any load.
These piles anchor down the structure subjected to uplift pressure due to hydrostatic pressure or due to overturning moment.
A tension pile is also called an uplift pile.
Anchor piles provide anchorage against horizontal pull from sheet piling or other pulling forces.
Fender piles are used to protect waterfront structures against impact from ships or other floating objects.
Better piles are used to resist large horizontal forces or inclined forces.
Ther are used as bulkheads or as an impervious cutoff to reduce seepage and uplift under hydraulic structures.
Use of Sheet Piles
List of use of sheet pile given below:
- To isolate foundations from adjacent soils.
- To prevent underground movement of water.
- To prevent the transfer of machine vibrations to adjacent structures.
- To construct retaining walls in docks, wharfs, and other marine structures.
- To protect river banks.
- To retain sides of foundations trenches.
- To work as cutoff walls under dams.
- To confine the soil and thereby increase the bearing capacity of the soil.
- To construct caissons for water intake structure.
Types of Sheet Piles
Based on the material used types of sheet piles are listed below:
- Concrete sheet piles
- Steel sheet piles
- Timber sheet piles
Different Between End Bearing Pile and Friction Pile
|Sr. No.||End Bearing Pile||Friction Pile|
|1||The bottom end of the pile rest on hard strata.||When loose soil expends to a great depth, the bottom end of the pile does not reach up to the hard strata.|
|2||Load is transferred at the tip of the pile.||Load is transferred to the soil surrounding the pile by friction between soil and the pile material.|
|3||It is suitable when hard strata are available at shallow depth.||It is suitable when loose soil expends to a great depth.|
|4||Pile act as a column.||The pile does not act as a column.|
|5||End bearing piles are normally driven in the vertical direction.||Friction piles may be driven in vertical or inclined directions.|
|6||Dimensions of the pile are determined from the load on the pile and its material.||Dimensions of the pile are determined from the load on the pile and the roughness of the pile surface.|
|7||The length of the pile must be equal to the depth of hard strata from the ground surface.||The length of the pile can be reduced by increasing the diameter of the pile or by increasing the roughness of the surface of the pile.|
Classification of Piles Based on Materials and Composition
Now we are going to the explain the classification of piles based on materials and composition. If you want to read the classification of piles based on function then read the above article we already explained.
- Concrete Piles
- Pre-cast piles
- Raymond piles
- Mac Arthur piles
- Monotube piles
- BSP base driven piles
- Swage piles
- Button bottom piles
- Simplex piles
- Franki piles
- Vibro piles
- Pedestal piles
- Pressure piles
- H piles
- Box Piles
- Tube piles
Classification of Piles Based on Method of Installation
Now we are going to explain the classification of piles based on installation.
based on the method of installation piles may be classified as follow:
These piles are driven into the ground by applying blows with a heavy hammer on their tops, timber, steel, and precast concrete piles are installed by driving, which may be driven into position either vertically or at an inclination.
Driven and Cast-in-Situ Piles
These piles are formed by driving a casing with a closed bottom end into the soil. The casting is later filled with concrete. The casing may or may not be withdrawn. If casing is withdrawn, it is called an uncased pile, and if the casing is not withdrawn, it is called a cased pile.
Bored and Cast-in-Situ Piles
These piles are formed by excavating a hole into the ground and then filling it with concrete.
These piles are screwed into the soil.
These piles are jacked into the ground by applying a downward force with the help of a hydraulic jack.
Classification of Piles Load Carrying Characteristics
Based on load carrying characteristics or mode of transfer of loads, the piles are classified as under.
- End bearing piles
- Friction pile
- Combined end bearing and friction piles
We already explain End bearing pile and friction pile in “Classification of Piles Based on Function” so please refer to that portion if you did not read that one.
Combined End Bearing and Friction Piles
These pile transfer load by a combination of end bearing at the bottom of the pile and friction along the surface of the pile shaft. The load-carrying capacity of the pile in this case depends on the bearing capacity of the stratum soil below and the skin friction along the surface of the pile.
Total load carried by pile = Load carried by the pile point = Load carried by the skin friction
Qn = Qp + Qs
FAQ 1: Classification of Piles Based of Function
Based on the function, piles are classified into the following types End bearing pile,  Friction pile,  Compaction pile,  Tension pile,  Anchor pile,  Fender pile,  Better pile,  Sheet pile…
FAQ 2: What is End Bearing Pile?
End Bearing types of piles penetrate through the soft soil layer, and their bottoms, also known as tips, rest on a hard soil stratum. These piles act as columns.The soft material surrounding the pile provides some lateral support.For end bearing pile’s equation is as followQu = Qp
FAQ 3: What is Friction Pile?
When the availability of loose soil extends to a greater depth. Piles are driven up to such a depth that frictional resistance developed at the sides of the piles equals the load coming on the piles.Friction piles are used when a hard stratum is available at a greater depth.The equation for friction pile isQu = QsWhere Qu = Ultimate loadQs = Skin friction
FAQ 4: What is Compaction Pile?
When piles are driven in loose granular soil with the aim of increasing the bearing capacity of the soil, the piles are termed compaction piles.These piles themselves do not carry any load.
FAQ 5: What is Use of Sheet Piles?
List of use of sheet pile given below: To isolate foundations from adjacent soils. To prevent underground movement of water. To prevent the transfer of machine vibrations to adjacent structures. To construct retaining walls in docks, wharfs, and other marine structures. To protect river banks. To retain sides of foundations trenches. To work as cutoff walls under dams. To confine the soil and thereby increase the bearing capacity of the soil. To construct caissons for water intake structure.